When Holy Prophet (PBUH) migrated to Medina, it was spread in an area of 30 Sq. kms. There were 72 fortresses in the city; 59 of them belonged to Jews and 13 to Arabs of Medina, the population was divided into tribal units. There were three main tribes of Jews, one was those of goldsmiths, other was of farmers and third one was engaged in tanneries.
The Jew scholars come to Holy Prophet (PBUH) and after their meetings when they were convinced that he was the last Prophet of God, their prejudice blocked their sanity. It was intolerable for them to accept someone, as the last Prophet who was not from Bani Israel.
Two Arab tribes were engaged in a feud for the possession of a piece of land. Abdullah Bin Ubai, chieftain of a tribe had played an important role in getting that feud settle between the warring tribes and this had increased his importance and respect and he was aspiring to become the leader of all the Arab tribes of Medina. But, arrival of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) made the people to think otherwise and they dropped the idea of having him as their leader. This had left a hard taste in Addulah Bin Abi’s mouth and he was bitter towards Muslims and Holy Prophet (PBUH).
Having realization of all these factors, Holy Prophet (PBUH), made a treaty of peace, religious freedom, justice and cooperation with Jewish tribes of Median and prepared a constitution for are the people living in Medina. This constitution is termed as Mesaq¬e-Medina.
Quraish of Makka sent separate letters to Jews and Arabs of Medina asking them to break their covenant with the Muslims and to hand over Holy Prophet (PBUH) to them and in case of their non compliance they would be attacked and the people of Medina would be responsible for all the damages of property and loss of lives resulting from that attack.
Jews although did not take side with Quraish, they could not desist from turning malicious towards Muslims. Victory of Muslims in the Battle of Baddar and their increasing influence in the area made them to conspire against Muslims. Jewish poets gifted with eloquence started visiting Makka and incited the infidels against Muslims using their art of eloquence and poetry. Gradually this propaganda campaign against Muslims was spread to even in Medina.
The ridiculing of Quranic Verses, teachings and the personality of Holy Prophet (PBUH) by the Jews irked the Muslims. When this reached the stage that riots were about to erupt in Medina, Holy Prophet (PBUH) went to Jew chieftains and told them not to violate the agreed terms of Mesaq-e-Medina. The Jews not only that they refused to listen to him but also tried to kill him by pushing heavy stones on him from a wall of the fortress. Holy Prophet (PBUH) ordered them to leave Medina with all their belongings except their arms and arsenals. Jewish tribes of goldsmiths and farmers were admonished from entering Medina.
After the Battle of Uhad, morale of infidels of Makka had improved. They were also aware of the breach of covenant by Jews, their growing animosity for the Muslims and the presence of hypocrites amongst the Muslims. Taking advantage of the situation they planned to siege Muslims in Medina.
Jew tribes living around Medina, collaborating with the infidels of Makka, to strangulate Muslims economically, started obstructing trade caravans to enter Medina. This affected the economy of Medina very badly. Before the situation had grown out of control Holy Prophet (PBUH) set off to Domatul Jandal with a contingent of one thousand companions so that dialogue for opening the passage of trade caravans could be initiated.
Jews had agreed in their agreement with Quraish that the major part of the expenses of war against Muslims would be borne by the Jews of Khyber and they have gathered an army of ten thousand soldiers for the purpose. On his way to Domatul Jandal, Holy Prophet (PBUH) was informed about this development and he returned to Medina.
Hypocrite Muslims, in the mean time, had informed Quraish about absence of Holy Prophet (PBUH) from Medina, sudden return of Holy Prophet (PBUH) gave them a surprise. Infidels had thought of attacking Medina when Holy Prophet (PBUH) would not be there. Holy Prophet (PBUH) convened a meeting of his companions and counseled with them. Salman Farsi proposed to take a defensive stance and suggested to dig a trench around Medina. Holy Prophet (PBUH) appreciated the suggestion and started with the digging of the trench. Yield of the farms and orchards located in the suburbs of Medina was collected and stocked in storehouses. Women and children were sent to the fortresses. The houses near the trench were vacated. People were divided into groups of ten individuals each, and each group was to dig forty feet long ditch. Every Muslim, man or woman, youth or old started digging the trench and on the sixth day, of toiling labor, six kilometer long, fifteen feet deep and fifteen feet wide trench was made ready.
During digging of the trench happening of many miraculous events was observed. Jabir Bin Abdullah slaughtered a goat and prepared flour from two and a half kilo barley and informed the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that some food has been prepared for him so he should go and have it. Holy Prophet (PBUH) called out to all those who were digging. “Jabir has prepared food for all of you come let us have it.” About one thousand Muslims gathered there Holy Prophet (PBUH) covered the utensils with a cloth and told Jaber to serve them in groups of ten each. One thousand people ate that food.
One-day wife of Bashir Bin Saad giving a handful of dates to her daughter told her to take them to her father and uncle. Holy Prophet (PBUH) seeing the girl inquired her as to why had she come. Showing the dates to Holy Prophet (PBUH) she told him that her mother had sent these dates for her father and uncle. Holy Prophet (PBUH) took those dates and spread them on a dinning cloth and told the diggers to come and eat from those dates. Every group came turn by turn and had dates from there.
During the digging a very hard rock was encountered. Holy Prophet (PBUH), reciting Bismillah, he struck the rock with the digger, it sparked and one third of the rock broke. Holy Prophet (PBUH) said, “God is great! I have been granted the keys of Syria. By God I am seeing the red palaces of Syria.” He again struck the rock with the digging tool, it again sparked and another one third of the rock broke away. Holy Prophet (PBUH) said. “God is great! Keys of Farris have been given to me. By God, I am witnessing the white palace of Kaiser.” Third when hit the rock, it again sparked. Holy Prophet (PBUH) said, “God is great! Keys of Yemen have been given to me. By God I am witnessing gates of Sanaa from here.” Salman Farsi was standing close to him, Holy Prophet (PBUH) addressing him said, “My followers will conquer Rome, Syria, Yemen and Farris.”
The trench was dug in the north of Medina. Quraish alone with their allies reached Medina and were struck with surprise when they saw the trench obstructing them from entering the city of Medina. They had never seen or heard about this type of defense before. It was a new thing for them. Laden with arms and arsenals of war, they were forced to camp on their side of the trench. Infidels had come there that with all the might and Force on their disposal they will be able to conquer the city with a day and after killing all the Muslims they would return but the trench in their way had frustrated all their designs and they were forced to camp their. When the army of infidels reached Medina, the weather was changing. Soldiers were suffering from the cold. They had to siege the city for which they were not fully prepared.
Their most wanted prey along with his companions was standing before their eyes only on the other side of the trench far away from their reach and access. Infidel chieftains would rode up to the trench daily, to find a way in, raced their horses along the whole length of the trench and in frustration they would shower arrows upon Muslims from the other side of the trench. Muslim archers would reply their arrows and they had to retreat.
When the siege prolonged without any success, and the weather intensified, infidels started losing hope and thinking of returning. But, reassembling such a large army especially after this humiliating retreat, seemed impossible so they approached Banu Qariza and invited them to join them by breaking the treaty. And, on the other hand, the hypocrites in Medina launched a campaign to demoralize Muslims.
“And, behold! The Hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease say: “God and His apostle promised us nothing but delusions!” Behold! A party among them said, “Ye men of Yathrib! Ye cannot stand the attack, therefore go back and a band of them ask for leave of the Prophet saying. “Truly our houses are bare and exposed” though they were not exposed: They intended nothing but to run away. And if an entry had been affected to them from the sides of the city and they had been incited to sedition, they would certainly have brought it to pass with none but a brief delay.” (S: 33, V: 12-14)
Propaganda of the Hypocrites and the news of breach of treaty with allies caused unrest in Muslim ranks and they submitted to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that they feared the intrigues of the Hypocrites and breach of covenant by the Jews. Holy Prophet (PBUH) unmoved by the situation said very calmly and with conviction, “Infidels are depending upon the help of the Jews and I have faith upon the help of God, Have faith! God will not leave us helpless.”
Words uttered by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) charged the Muslims with a new courage and they had faith in help and victory from God.
“And, when the Believers saw the Confederate Forces, they said, “This is what God and His apostle had promised us and God and His apostle told us what was true. And, it only added to their faith and their zeal in obedience.” (S: 33, V: 22)
On the other side of the trench, army of ten thousand infidels, suffering from cold for the last two weeks, was finding it hard to keep the supply of ration and provisions in place. The Commander of that army was facing the threat of revolt and mutiny in his ranks. Quraish, Jews and their allies all were simply watching the Muslims helplessly from across the trench. Nothing was working for them. Neither conspiracy of the Hypocrites against Muslims or their efforts of breaking any ally of Muslim were bearing any fruit.
“O ye who believe! Remember the Grace of God bestowed upon you, when there come down on you hosts of enemies to overwhelm you but we sent against them a hurricane and forces that ye saw not; but God sees clearly all that ye do.” (S: 33, V: 9)
Infidels and their allies were still disputing amongst themselves as what should they do, when a hurricane sized them in the night. Their tents started fly in the air like air filled balloons, the fire burning the camp extinguished, rain added into the miseries of the soldiers at cold intensified and the limbs went numb. The place, where the army was camping, over flew with cold rainwater. Abu Sufyan, in order to runaway, rode on a camel that was tied to a peg, and started hitting the camel by his whip to make it run faster. He was so puzzled that he couldn’t notice that the camel was tied. The infidels finally abandoned the siege of Medina in a state of hopelessness and retreated dismayed and dejected.
A magnetic process is operative behind the changes. Heat is a measurable movement or vibration. Any action, whether it is a chemical process, electrical heating or it is that of the solar waves, primarily is a movement. Air, like water, plays an important role in the life of every creature. Air with the help of sun rays, causes the water vapors to rise in the atmosphere and makes them to assemble in the form of clouds. These clouds are carried here and there and finally these clouds descend on the earth in the form of raindrops.
Imam Ghazali has stated: The eastern winds take the clouds in upper regions, northern winds assemble the clouds in one place, the southern winds enable the clouds to shower the rain and the western winds help in converting the vapors into raindrops that irrigate the earth.
We send the winds that saturate the clouds with water. Then We cause the water to pour down the clouds as rain to that you could quench your thirst and you could have never stores water in Such a large quantity.”
It is the air that takes the clouds from one to another place to enable the farmers to cultivate their farms, the boats in the sea and the planes in the sky are also carried from one place to another by means of the air. The air causes the dust and sand to reach the tree so that these could have energy. The air also brings many useful things to the shores so that man could be benefited from them. Air helps in vitalizing man and the be-creations serving him.
According to the spiritual scholars. Air, as the inner eye witnesses it is a creation that multiplies itself by reproduction. Air, too, like other creatures pass through the childhood, youth and old age. Air is a tiny organism having a disk like oval shape. This round, flat and slippery organism, smaller than bacteria grows in numbers much faster than bacteria. Open deserts, and upper zones of deep seas are the sanctuaries of air growth and reproduction.
One of the creatures is grasshopper, when it rises in the air swarming, in such a large numbers that the sun is blocked and it appears as night has fallen. Where the germs of air are transparent and these are so small that these remain invisible even to most powerful microscopes but when they move they gain such a velocity that these become winds and hurricanes capable of destroying skyscrapers, gigantic machines and entire cities. The air is a creation, which is dominated by green color but when it becomes violent, the red overpowers it. All those colors are found in the air as well, which are present in other creatures.
Air has this much energy that it can move with a velocity of 30 or 40 miles per hour and sometimes its speed exceeds even 120 mile per hours capable of ripping a building from is foundations. The cyclones moving with a velocity of 240 miles per hour advances with a speed of 20 miles per hour. Speed and velocity of the ocean waves are directly related to with the winds blowing upon its surface.
In the Bank of Trench, when Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that he has faith in God, God demonstrating His Grace ordered the air to rip off the enemy from the battle field and the air in compliance to the orders of God, started blowing, covered the sky with clouds, caused them to rain by wringing them and making the temperature to fall unnerved the army of infidels and they escaped in fright.
“The Sure Reality! What is the Sure Reality? And, what will make thee realize what the Sure Reality is? The Thamud and the Aad people branded the Stunning Calamity as false But the Thamud were destroyed by a furious wind exceedingly violent. He made it rage against them seven night and eight days in succession; so that thou could see the whole people lying prostrate in its path as if they had been roots of hollow palm trees tumbled down. Then do you see any of them surviving?” (S: 69, V: 1-8)
It has been stated in the sixth verse of the above Sura that the people of Aad were destroyed by a chilly wind.